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Scientific and Technological Education

Information source:collation of the home website  Time of publication:2011-02-25 16:35:00
   


Scientific research and development

Shaanxi is an important base for key scientific research and industry in fields such as China scientific research, national defense technology, modern agriculture and hi-tech studies, and now has 1076 research institutes and 1.47 million professionals of different disciplines, including 52 members of the Chinese Academy of Science and Chinese Academy of Engineering.

Supported by Xi’an Hi-tech Development Zone and Yangling Agricultural Hi-tech Industrial Demonstration Zone, a hi-tech industrial development belt has come into being in the central Shaanxi plains. Both Xi’an Hi-tech Development Zone, one of the first science and technology industries areas open to APEC, and Yangling demonstration zone, the only agricultural hi-tech industrial demonstration zone in China, are on the list of five hi-tech development zones under state support. In January 2010, Xi’an is defined as one of the first national group of innovative pilot cities.

In 2010, total expenditure of R&D funds of Shaanxi counted for over 3% of gross domestic product (GDP), including RMB118.697 million of basic research, occupying 2.4%, RMB954.52 million of applied research, occupying 19.3%, and RMB3.872484 billion of trial development, occupying 78.3%.

  Among R&D expenses, RMB2.516362 billion is spent by scientific research institutes, counting for 50.9% of R; RMB442.999 million is spent by institutions of higher learning, counting for 9.0%; RMB1.888441 billion is spent by various enterprises, counting for 38.2%; and RMB 97.899 million is spent by other institutions, occupying 2.0%.

In 2010, Shaanxi office for examination and registration of scientific research achievements recorded 553 items, increasing by 35 items or 6.76% over previous year, including 289 patents of invention authorized by the State; worked out 29 standards, including 2 international, 13 national, 9 industrial, 2 local and 3 corporate ones.

According to a national statistical report on monitoring advances of science and technology issued by the Ministry of Science and Technology in 2010, the index of scientific and technological progress level of Shaanxi was 52.93%, increased by 3.40 percentage points over previous year with an increase rate ranking second; it ranked eighth in the total seating arrangement nationwide, increased by 2 seats, and maintained first place in West China.

  Environmental index of Shaanxi’s scientific and technological progress in 2010 reached up to 63.6%, ranking fifth nationwide, including material condition index of scientific research exceeded that of Beijing, rising from second to first place nationwide. This indicates that manpower and material conditions for technological innovation in Shaanxi are already in front ranks nationwide and Shaanxi has had obvious comparative advantage in scientific education resources.

  In 2010, output index of scientific and technological activities of Shaanxi was 46.07%, ranking seventh in China, including tenth place in possession of invention patents by ten thousand of employed personnel. This indicates that scientific and technological production, especially the commercialization of research findings, is above normal level nationwide.

Index of inputs in scientific and technological activities of Shaanxi in 2010 was 55.21%, ranking eighth nationwide. The main reasons are: S&T appropriation of local finance counts for less proportion of local financial expenditure, down to 21st place nationwide; number of corporate R&D scientists and engineers occupies less proportion of total number of social R&D scientists and engineers, down to 22nd place nationwide; expenditure of corporate R&D funds takes up 0.75% of sales revenue, 0.84% lower than national average; proportion of expenses spent on corporate technical import and absorption as against sales revenue ranks 22nd nationwide.

Hi-tech industrialization index of Shaanxi in 2010 was 38.19%, ranking 17th nationwide; index of S&T promoting development of economic society was 58.53%, ranking 18th nationwide. This indicates that hi-tech industrialization of Shaanxi is less efficient, labor productivity of both hi-tech industry and knowledge-intensive service falls behind 20th place, productivity of capital ranks 25th nationwide and environmental quality index ranks 18th nationwide.

Educational resources

    Shaanxi is an important base for higher education in China. Xi’an is one of the cities with largest concentration of key institutions of higher learning in China; number of colleges and universities ranks third, only next to Beijing and Shanghai.

  Currently, Shaanxi possesses 76 regular institutions of higher learning, 9 military academies, 18 adult colleges, 30 private institutions of higher education and 8 “211 project” universities such as Xi’an Jiaotong University, Northwestern Polytechnic University, Xidian University, Chang’an University, Northwest University, Shaanxi Normal University, the Fourth Military Medical University and Northwest Agriculture & Forestry University.

Complete range of subjects offered in higher education of Shaanxi covers 142 disciplines and 65 state-level key disciplines, ranking fourth nationwide, including 43 engineering courses that ranks second, only next to Beijing;15 medical courses, ranking third only next to Beijing and Shanghai; 560 doctoral stations, 59 centers for post-doctoral studies and 1414 post-graduate stations.

During 2006-2010, twenty bases were built for highly-skilled personnel training and ten bases for highly-skilled personnel qualification. In 2010, there would be 200 schools for skilled workers, 50 vocational colleges for technicians, 30 advanced vocational colleges, 40 state-level technical schools, 50 province-level key schools and 1200 technical and vocational training private schools, with an enrollment of 220,000 students.

In 2010, number of students in colleges and universities would be about 1.2 million with a gross enrollment rate of about 30%; enrollment amount of advanced vocational education would be half that of higher education, including about 900,000 regular undergraduates and vocational graduates, about 84,000 post-graduates and about 13,000 doctoral students. Adult higher education would recruit 66,000 students, with 172,000 students enrolled. Secondary vocational education would recruit 246,400 students (not including those in technical schools), with 625,500 students enrolled. In 2009, there were about 280,000 graduating students in Shaanxi.

Education system of Shaanxi emerged characteristic of “perfect system, higher quality, rational structure and balanced development”. Number of years for population above 15 being educated comes up to about 9 years and average number of years for incoming labor force being educated amounts to 11 years. Seventy percent of schools in Shaanxi own practice bases that have paved the way for quality-oriented education. It is estimated that total number of skilled laborers will reach 2.2 million in 2010, including 110,000 technicians and senior technicians and 440,000 senior workers.

As compared with provinces and cities in East China, Shaanxi is superior in labor cost. In 2010, a multilevel endowment insurance system took its initial shape on the basis of basic endowment insurance, supplementary pension and personal savings endowment insurance. Basic endowment, medical, unemployment, business-based injury and maternity insurances had covered 4.5 million, 4 million, 3.3 million, 2.7 million and 1 million people respectively; coverage of business-based injury insurance is above 90%; total amount of social insurance funds amounted to RMB13.5 billion; average money wage of staff and workers amounted to RMB25,450, annually increased by 12%.

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